|Citation:||CHEN Youping, CHEN Feng, ZHANG Heli, HU Mao, WANG Shijie, ARIEL Hadad Martín, ALEJANDRO Roig Juñent Fidel. Strong link of large volcanic eruptions and climatic and hydrological changes recorded by tree rings in the river source area of Southern High Asia since 1200 A.D.[J]. Quaternary Sciences, 2021, 41(2): 323-333. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2021.02.02|
Long-term climate proxy data is very important for understanding past climate changes and assess the influences of large volcanic eruptions. A total of 81 cores were taken from Picea brachytyla trees in the Zhujiaola Mountain(31°3'N, 96°58'E; 4277 m a.s.l.), Changdu city, southeastern Tibetan Plateau in June, 2020. All cores were air-dried prior to mounting and sanding, and prepared following standard dendrochronological techniques. And the CooRecorder 9.4 ring analyzer with accuracy of 0.01 mm was used to measure the tree-ring width of all cores. The quality of cross-dating was checked by using the COFECHA program. Finally, the standard chronology during 1135~2019 A.D. was developed by ARSTAN program for subsequent analysis. Climate-growth relationship analysis between tree ring width chronology and climate data showed that mean minimum temperature from November of previous year to current year February was the main factor controlling tree-ring growth in the Zhujiaola Mountain, southeastern Tibetan plateau, and the total precipitation from August of previous year to current year May states on the growth effect are significant. Mean minimum temperature from previous November to February since 1200 A.D. were then reconstructed based on the tree-ring width chronology using a simple liner regression model. The reconstruction explained 47.1% of the variance in the instrumental temperature records during the calibration period(1954~2019 A.D.). The reconstruction exhibits decadal to inter-decadal temperature variability, with cold periods occurring in 1206~1227, 1234~1332, 1356~1372, 1465~1548, 1588~1602, 1728~1832, 1899~1935 and 1947~1987, and warm periods in 1333~1355, 1373~1388, 1397~1464, 1549~1587, 1603~1634, 1643~1727, 1833~1898, 1936~1946 and 1988~2019. Meanwhile, the reconstruction contains ten extreme cold years(1474, 1504, 1534, 1757, 1789, 1793, 1817, 1968, 1972 and 1982) and twenty three extremely warm years(1407, 1410, 1412, 1422, 1423, 1424, 1448, 1673, 1674, 1682, 1683, 1694, 1698, 1700, 1701, 1702, 1706, 1708, 2000, 2013, 2015, 2016 and 2017). The temperature fluctuations of the reconstructed sequence were in accordance with other temperature reconstruction in the southeastern Tibetan plateau. All of above mentioned information demonstrated the reliability of reconstructed temperature. At the same time, the temperature reconstruction sequence verified the cooling effect after 27 large volcanic eruptions since 1200 A.D., including the large volcanic eruptions of Samalas in 1257 and Tambora in 1815. In addition, the comparison between the temperature reconstruction sequence and the related river runoff data shows that the strong volcanic eruption may cause significant decrease in the temperature of the river source area in Southern High Asia, and may further slowed down the water cycle, resulting in the decrease of river runoff in Southern High Asia.
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(a)Locations of volcanos, sampling site, meteorological station and hydrological stations and (b) tree-ring width chronology of Picea brachytyla and the number of samples for each year in Zhujiaola Mountain of southeastern Tibetan Plateau
(a)Monthly variation of precipitation, average temperature, average maximum temperature and average minimum temperature at Changdu Meteorological Station(1954~2019 A.D.), and (b) monthly variation of runoff at Qingsheng Hydrological Station(1972~2007 A.D.)
Pearson correlation coefficients between tree-ring standard chronology and monthly precipitation (a), monthly average temperature (b), monthly average maximum temperature (c) and monthly average minimum temperature (d). "P" and "C" represent the previous year and the current year respectively, and the solid line and the dotted line are the 99%confidence level and are the 95%confidence, respectively
Scatter plot of November-February mean minimum temperature and tree-ring standard chronology with linear fitting curve(1954~2019 A.D.)(a), comparison between the instrumental and reconstructed November-February mean minimum temperature for the common period 1954~2019 A.D. (b), and November-February mean minimum temperature reconstruction since 1200 A.D.(thin solid line)(c). Its 31-year fast fourier transformation smoothing(thick solid line), the mean(horizontal black line), ±σ and ±2σ standard deviation(horizontal gray dotted and solid lines)
Superposed epoch analyses centered on 27 large volcanic eruptions(VEI≥5)since 1200 A.D.
Scatter plot of the tree-ring standard chronology and the April-July runoff of Qingsheng Hydrological Station(1972~2007 A.D.)showing the linear relationship
(a)Comparison of the instrument runoff at the Daojieba Hydrological Station on the Salween River from prior September to current June and the instrument runoff at the Qingsheng Hydrological Station on the Mekong River from April to July(1972~2007 A.D.); (b)Comparison of the reconstructed runoff of the Salween River from prior September to current June and the reconstructed runoff of the Mekong River from April to July(1500~2011 A.D.). The gray and black solid lines in fig. 7 represent the runoff of the Salween River and Mekong River, respectively, and the thin solid line is the reconstructed runoff, the thick solid line is the 21 a low-pass filter curve, and the horizontal dashed line is the average runoff in fig. 7b, respectively